Sabtu, 17 Maret 2012

Wayang (Puppet)

The word Wayang (Puppet) probably derived from the word `Wewayangan ', which means shadow or a reflection of the properties that exist in the human soul, like wrath, righteousness, greed, and others. Conjecture is consistent with the fact the Shadow Puppet performances that use "Kelir (a piece of cloth)", as a barrier between the puppeteer who plays the puppet, and the audience behind the curtain. The audience only saw the puppet movements through the shadows that fell on the kelir (a piece of cloth) . At that time the wayang accompanied only by a simple set of gamelan consist of saron, todung (a type of flute), and kemanak. Another type of gamelan and singer at that time there has been no suspected. The play is performed by a " Dalang (puppeteer)" who is assisted by several gamelan players and one or two people waranggana as a vocalist. In addition, a puppeteer sometimes also have a special assistant to him, in charge of organizing puppet before the game started and prepare for that kind of puppet figures will be needed by the mastermind of presenting the story. Mastermind function here is to set the course of the show as a whole.
It was he who led all crewnya to yield in the story line is presented.

Even to the small scene there must be solidarity among all the art crew.Thus, in addition required to be able to appreciate each character of the existing characters in the puppet, a puppeteer also have to understand about gending (song). Design floor puppet used in the game are straight lines, and in playing puppet, a puppeteer is limited by the base used to stick puppets. In the puppet show known set of right and left set.
Right Set is a collection of figures or warrior-knight leader defenders of truth and virtue, while the left set of figures is the place insolence. However this provision is not absolute.

Performances for a long time the play is about 7 to 8 hours. Musical instruments used in the accompanying puppet show is a complete Javanese gamelan pelog and slendro, but if not complete, and commonly used is the only type of slendro. Female of singer in the music called waranggono  can be one person or more. In addition, there is still a male vocalist called penggerong or wirasuara, which number 4 to 6 people and served to accompany waranggana dengan voice "choir". Male vocalist can be provided exclusively or concurrently by the gamelan players, so it is also penggerong gamelan. In determining the play to be presented a puppeteer can not just choose according to his will.
He was limited by several factors.
Among them are:
(1) types of puppets are used as a demonstration tool;
(2) confidence in the surrounding community;
(3) the purposes of holding of the show.
Will affect the type of puppet theater that can be presented through the puppets.
A set of " Wayang Kulit (Puppets made from leather) for example can only be used to play the stories from the Mahabharata or Ramayana .
Wayang Kulit (Puppets made from leather) can not be used to display the chronicle Menak. Instead the "Wayang Golek" can not be used for performing Mahabharata, is because there are characters who figure in these puppets had been made ​​for the staging of the specific stories.

In some communities, particularly rural communities, who still adhere to traditions and customs of the relics of his ancestors, we meet a lot of taboos of a particular play for a puppet show. Most of the people for example assume that the play was staged in Bharatayuda taboo for marriage ceremonies. If the restrictions are violated, people believe that the family will be in trouble. Whether there will be a family member who died, there would be a divorce in the family, or other catastrophe. In rural areas are still a lot we meet ceremonies organized by the puppet show.To a certain ceremony, staged puppet plays also certain.
At the ceremony the village clean, that salvation after the harvest, the play should be performed is "Kondure Dewi Sri" (Dewi Sri go home), while the ceremony "ngruwat" the figure is Batara Kala. In addition to these restrictions puppet theater often also determined by demand or the agreement between the puppeteer and the puppet responders.

Puppet one of the nation's top arts and culture of Indonesia's most prominent among the many works of other cultures. Include the role of puppet art culture, the art of singing, music, speech arts, literary arts, painting, sculpture, and art is also symbolic. Puppet culture, which continues to grow from age to age, also a lighting media, propaganda, education, entertainment, philosophical understanding, as well as entertainment.

History of Wayang (Puppet)
On the history of this puppet, in the world there are two opinions. First, the notion that puppets originated and was first born on the island of Java, specifically in East Java. This opinion is in addition to adopted and raised by the researchers and experts from Indonesia, also the result of research of Western scholars. Among Western scholars belonging to this group, is Hazeau, Brandes, Kats, Rentse, and Kruyt.
The reason they are strong enough. Among other things, that the art of the puppet is still very closely related to sociocultural and religious nation state of Indonesia, especially the Javanese. Panakawan, the most important figures in the puppet, which Semar, Gareng, Petruk, Bagong, there are only puppets in Indonesia, and not in other countries. In addition, the puppets names and technical terms, it all comes from the Javanese and no other language

Meanwhile, a second opinion suspect puppets from India, who brought along with the Hindu religion to Indonesia. They include Pischel, Hidding, Krom, Poensen, Goslings, and Rassers. Much of this second group is the British scholar, the European country that once colonized India.

However, since the 1950's, the books seemed to have agreed that wayang puppet originated from Java, and was not imported from other countries.
 Puppet culture in Indonesia is estimated to have been born at least in the reign of King Airlangga, king Kahuripan (976 -1012), ie, when the kingdom in East Java was-prosperous prosperous. Literary works are the subject of puppet story was written by the poet Indonesia, since the X century Among other things, literary manuscript Book of Old Javanese Ramayana Kakimpoi language written in the reign of Dyah Balitung (989-910), which is a spin-off from the Book of the Ramayana written by Indian poet, Valmiki. Furthermore, the poets of Java is no longer just translate the Ramayana and the Mahabharata into Old Javanese language, but it is composed and recounted by incorporating into it the philosophy of Java. For example, the work of Professor Kanwa Arjunawiwaha Kakimpoi, which is composed by a berinduk on the Book of Mahabharata. Composition different from other, more tangible version of the original story derigan India, is a master work of Baratayuda Kakimpoi Panuluh Sedah and master. This masterpiece is done during the reign of King Jayabaya, Kediri king (1130-1160).

Puppet as a performance and spectacle had already started there since the reign of King Airlangga. Some inscriptions are made in those days, among others already mentioned the words "mawayang 'and` aringgit' which means that the puppet show.
since the early days of the Majapahit Kingdom introduced another wayang stories are not from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata Book. Since then Panji stories; the story of the ancestors of the kings of Majapahit, was introduced as one form to another puppet. Flag story is then used to show more Wayang Beber. Menjawakan tradition of wayang stories are also forwarded by some Islamic scholars, among them by the Wali Sanga. They began mewayangkan story Majapahit kings, among them the story Damarwulan.
Introduction of Islam to Indonesia since the 15th century is also a big influence on the cultural shadow puppets, especially the religious concept of the philosophy of the puppet. At the beginning of the 15th century, the time of the Kingdom of Demak, began to use specially-shaped oil lamp called Blencong on Shadow Puppet performances.
Since the days of Kartasura, composing a puppet story in the Ramayana and Mahabharata  farther away from the original. Since the days of the fans that know the genealogy of wayang puppet figures, including the god figure, which originated from the Prophet Adam The genealogy continues to come to the kings of the island of Java. And further, began to be known are the stories grip puppet. the appropriate standard of stories, puppets and stories carangan out of the standard line. In addition there is another offshoot called "Wayang Sempalan" the play, which was too far out of the story grip.

Indeed, so strong as puppet art is rooted in the culture of Indonesia, so there was some confusion between the wayang stories, legends, and history. If the Indians thought that the story of Mahabharata and Ramayana actually happened in his country, a Javanese wayang story even consider actually happened on the island of Java.
And in the Kulonprogo East Java puppet is still very interested by all ages. Not only by parents, but also teenagers and even young children have also always to see a puppet show. Besides, the puppet is also commonly used in certain events in the area Kulonprogo, both in urban areas or in rural areas Wates in Kulonprogo.

Types of puppets:
Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet)
As the name implies, "Wayang Kulit " puppets made ​​of leather animals (buffalo, cow or goat).Wayang Kulit  are used to demonstrate the act of the play chronicles the Mahabharata and Ramayana, therefore also called Wayang Purwa. Until now a puppet show in addition to entertainment facilities is also a part of traditional ceremonies such as: clean village, ngruwat and others.To perform a puppet show in full is required by about 18 supporters.One person as a puppeteer, two people as waranggana, and 15 people as gamelan wiraswara concurrently. Average performances in one night is 7 to 8 hours, from 21:00 hours to 05:00 hours in the morning. When done in the daytime show usually starts from 09.00 to 16:00 hours. Place a puppet show stage set up with the concept of abstract. Arena stage consists of a screen of white cloth as a means of technical and placed under the banana stem to stick puppets. In the puppet show, a number of scenes in the play can not be determined. This scene number will vary based on the play that was shown or hanging behind it. As a pre-show is drumming that has nothing to do with the main story, so it is just as heated atmosphere or introductory course to get into the actual show. As a guide in presenting puppet show usually a puppeteer would use a grip puppetry books.
Wayang kulit, shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiseled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.
The stories are usually drawn from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or the Serat Menak.

There is a family of characters in Javanese wayang called Punakawan; they are sometimes referred to as "clown-servants" because they normally are associated with the story's hero, and provide humorous and philosophical interludes. Semar is the father of Gareng (oldest son), Petruk, and Bagong (youngest son). These characters did not originate in the Hindu epics, but were added later, possibly to introduce mystical aspects of Islam into the Hindu-Javanese stories. They provide something akin to a political cabaret, dealing with gossip and contemporary affairs.
The puppets figures themselves vary from place to place. In Central Java the city of Surakarta (Solo) is most famous and is the most commonly imitated style of puppets. Regional styles of shadow puppets can also be found in West Java, Banyumas, Cirebon, Semarang, and East Java. Bali produces more compact and naturalistic figures, and Lombok has figures representing real people. Often modern-world objects as bicycles, automobiles, airplanes and ships will be added for comic effect, but for the most part the traditional puppet designs have changed little in the last 300 years.
Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in the Art Academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other innovations.
The handwork involved in making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models (typically on paper) which are traced out onto kulit (skin or parchment), providing the figures with an outline and with indications of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes). The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. 

Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) mounted on the body, which has a central staff by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week.
The painting of less expensive puppets is handled expediently with a spray technique, using templates, and with a different person handling each color. Less expensive puppets, often sold to children during performances, are sometimes made on cardboard instead of leather.

Wayang topeng or wayang gedog or wayang wong

Wayang wong also known as Wayang orang (literally human wayang) is a type of theatrical performance with themes from the kingdom of Jenggala, in which the players wear masks known as wayang topeng or wayang gedog. The word "gedog" comes from "kedok", which, like "topeng" means "mask". The main theme is the story of Raden Panji and Candra. This is a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih (goddess of love) and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya (god of love). Kirana's story was given the title "Smaradahana" ("The fire of love"). At the end of the complicated story they finally can marry and bring forth a son, named Raja Putra. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names "Sri Kameswara", "Prabu Suryowiseso", and "Hino Kertapati". Originally, wayang wong was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. In the course of time, it spread to become a popular and folk form as well.
Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume:
For male performers:
  • Alus: very slow, elegant and smooth movement. For example, the dance of Arjuna, Puntadewa and all other slimly built Kshatriyas. There are two types of movement, lanyap and luruh.
  • Gagah:
    • Kambeng: a more athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima, Antareja, and Ghatotkacha.
    • Bapang: gagah and kasar for the warriors of Kaurawa.
    • Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja.
  • Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying ogres and demons.
  • Gecul: ponokawan and cantrik
    • Kambeng dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Hanuman.
    • Kalang kinantang dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Sugriwa and Subali.

For female performers: Kshatriya noblemen. Costumes and props distinguish kings, Kshatriyas, monks, princesses, The movements known as nggruda or ngenceng encot in the classical high style of dance consist of nine basic movements (joged pokok) and twelve other movements (joged gubahan and joged wirogo) and are used in portraying Bedoyo and Srimpi.
Today, the wayang wong, following the Gagrak style of Surakarta, is danced by women. They follow the alus movements associated with a Kshatriya, resembling Arjuna. Following the Gagkra style from Yogyakarta a male dancer uses these same Alus movements to depict princes and generals. There are about 45 distinct character types.

Wayang Golek (Rod Puppets)

Wayang golek are wooden doll puppets that are operated from below by rods connected to the hands and a central control rod that runs through the body to the head. The simple construction of the puppets belies their versatility, expressiveness and aptitude for imitating human dance. Little is known for certain about the history of wayang golek, but scholars have speculated that it most likely originated in China and arrived in Java sometime in the 17th century. Some of the oldest traditions of wayang golek are from the north coast of Java in what is called the pasisir region. This is home to some of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Java and it is likely the wayang golek grew in popularity through telling the wayang menak stories of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. 

These stories are still widely performed in Kabumen, Tegal, and Jepara as wayang golek menak, and in Cirebon, wayang golek cepak. Legendary origins of wayang golek attribute their invention to the Muslim saint Wali Sunan Kudus, who used the medium to proselytize Muslim values. In the 18th century the tradition moved into the mountains of West Java where it eventually was used to tell stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabarata in a tradition now called wayang golek purwa, which can be found in Bandung, Bogor and Jakarta. Wayang golek purwa has become the most popular form of wayang golek today and the most famous puppeteer family is the Sunarya family which has produced several generations of stellar performers.

Wayang Karucil or Wayang Klitik
Wayang klitik figures occupy a middle ground between the figures of wayang golek and wayang kulit. They are constructed similarly to wayang kulit figures, but from thin pieces of wood instead of leather, and, like wayang kulit figures, are used as shadow puppets. A further similarity is that they are the same smaller size as wayang kulit figures. However, wood is more subject to breakage than leather. During battle scenes, wayang klitik figures often sustain considerable damage, much to the amusement of the public, but in a country in which before 1970 there were no adequate glues available, breakage generally meant an expensive, newly made figure. On this basis the wayang klitik figures, which are to appear in plays where they have to endure battle scenes, have leather arms. The name of these figures is onomotopaeic, from the sound klitik-klitik, that these figures make when worked by the dalang.
Wayang klitik figures come originally from eastern Java, where one still finds workshops turning them out. They are less costly to produce than wayang kulit figures.
The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit. From Jenggala and Kediri come the stories of Raden Panji and Cindelaras, which tells of the adventures of a pair of village youngsters with their fighting cocks. The Damarwulan presents the stories of a hero (Damarwulan) from Majapahit. Damarwulan is a clever chap, who with courage, aptitude, intelligence and the assistance of his young lover Anjasmara, makes a surprise attack on the neighboring kingdom and brings down Minakjinggo, an Adipati (viceroy) of Blambangan and mighty enemy of Majapahit's beautiful queen Sri Ratu Kencanawungu. As a reward, Damarwulan is married to Kencanawungu and becomes king of Majapahit; he also takes Lady Anjasmara as a second wife. This story is full of love affairs and battles and is very popular with the public. The dalang is liable to incorporate the lawayang local gossip and quarrels and work them into the play as comedy.

Wayang beber

The wayang beber has strong similarities to narratives in the form of illustrated ballads that were common at annual fairs in medieval and early modern Europe. They have also been subject to the same fate—they have nearly vanished. Chinese visitors to Java during the 15th century described a storyteller or unrolled scrolls and told stories that made the audience laugh or cry. A few scrolls of images remain from those times, found today in museums. There are two sets, hand-painted on hand-made bark cloth, that are still owned by families who have inherited them from many generations ago, in Pacitan and Wonogiri, both villages in Central Java. Performances, mostly in small open-sided pavilions or auditoriums, take place according to the following pattern:
The dhalang (puppeteer, narrator) gives a sign, the small gamelan orchestra with drummer and a few knobbed gongs and a musician with a rebab (violin-like instrument held vertically) begins to play and the dhalang unrolls the first scroll of the story. Then, speaking and singing, he narrates the episode in more detail. In this manner, in the course of the evening he unrolls several scrolls one at a time. Each scene in the scrolls represents a story or part of a story. The content of the story typically stems from the Panji romances which are semi-historical legends set in the 12th-13th century East Javanese kingdoms of Jenggala, Daha and Kedhiri, and also in Bali.

Wayang Sadat

Sadat puppet that is a form of folk art of shadow puppets, but the characters and the story is the history of Islam is taken from the end of the Majapahit empire until the beginning of the Mataram kingdom. This puppet is played day and night by a puppeteer with gamelan accompaniment. This newly developed form is used by teachers of Islam to show the principles of Muslim ethics and religion to the natives of Java and Bali.

 About the birth culture of puppets, Ir. Sri Mulyono in his book, Symbolism and Mysticism in the Puppet (1979), estimates wayang existed in Neolithikum, ie approximately 1,500 years before Christ. His opinion was based on the writings Robert von Heine-Geldern Ph. D, Prehistoric Research in the Netherland Indies (1945) and Prof. writing. K.A.H. Hidding in the Encyclopedia of Indonesia page 987
UNESCO designated Wayang Kulit, a shadow puppet theater and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003. In return of the acknowledgment, UNESCO demanded Indonesia to preserve their heritage.

Of the 12 World Heritage owned by Indonesia as many as four of them in nature, the three cultural heritage, and five intangible heritage.

For the natural heritage of the world, according to him, consisting of Ujung Kulon National Park (Banten), Komodo National Park in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), Lorentz National Park in Papua, and the tropical forests of Sumatra (Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat, and Bukit Barisan). 

While for the sanctuary of Borobudur Temple complex which UNESCO recognized since 1991, Prambanan Temple complex (1991), and The Prehistoric Site Sangiran.

Indonesia's Intangible Heritage that have been and will be recognized by UNESCO, namely Wayang (Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, 2003), Keris ( Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, 2005), Batik (a Representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, 2009), Angklung (a Representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, 18 November 2010) and Tari Saman (a Representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity,19 November 2011).


2 komentar:

  1. banyak x budaya kita,,, dan pastinya harus kita lestarikan,,
    happy blogging

  2. thanks bro anwar kalau bukan kita siapa lagi yg hrs melestarikan?